ابليس في التفسير والواقع اللغوي التأصيلي

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إبليس من مبنى الثنائي المتوالف *أب “والد” و*لس “بلا، لا،” كما في ليس ولست ولسنا وهي بالانكليزية less ومعناها “من لا أبا له”

عُرض رأي الطبري في التأويل والتأوّل، وفيه: «القائل في دين الله بالظن، قائل على الله ما لم يعلم»، فما قول الطبري في قول نقله عن قتادة: «ذُكر لنا أن البيت هبط مع آدم حين هبط، قال: أهبط معك بيتي يُطاف حوله كما يطاف حول عرشي. فطاف حوله آدم ومن كان بعده من المؤمنين، حتى إذا كان زمنُ الطوفان، زمن أغرق الله قوم نوح، رفعه الله وطهره من أن يصيبهُ عقوبة أهل الأرض، فصار معمورًا في السماء. ثم إن إبراهيم تتبع منه أثرا بعد ذلك، فبناه على أساسٍ قديم كان قبله.»

وروى ابن كثير في السيرة النبوية بناء الحرم: «ان الله تعالى أوحى إلى إبراهيم أن ابن لي بيتا في الأرض. فضاق به ذرعا فأرسل إليه السكينة وهي ريح خجوج لها رأس، فاتبع أحدهما صاحبه حتى انتهت ثم تطوقت في موضع البيت تطوق الحية، فبنى إبراهيم حتى بلغ مكان الحجر، قال لابنه: ابغني حجرا. فالتمس حجرا حتى أتاه به، فوجد الحجر الأسود قد ركب. فقال لأبيه: من أين لك هذا؟ قال: جاء به من لا يتكل على بنائك، جاء به جبريل من السماء، فأنمه. قال: فمر عليه الدهر فانهدم، فبنته العمالقة، ثم انهدم فبنته جرهم. ثم انهدم فبنته قريش ورسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم يومئذ رجل شاب» ( السيرة النبوية ج 1، ص 273، وذكر الأزرقي ما جاء في نهاية الاقتطاف في 1/62). والرواية مختلفة عن استنتاج تأصيل الكلام الذي رد بناء الكعبة إلى أيام عب وعبعب، كما أنّ لـ*عب كلام كثير في الآكادية. ولوحظ في النص أن العمالقة كانوا من بُناة البيت، وقيل إن العمالقة جزء من طيء أو طيء نفسها.

باحثون يقولون: «ذُكر لنا»، هذه، ماذا تعني؟ هل هو سر حتى يُبنى للغائب؟ من الذي ذكر لقتادة ما ساقه، وما أدراه هو، أو من «ذكر له» أن البيت هبط مع آدم؟ أكان شاهد عيان هو أو من «ذكر له» وقت هبوط آدم؟

في تفسير الآية «إني جاعل في الأرض خليفة» (البقرة 30)، قال بعضهم: «إني فاعل»، وقال آخرون: «إني خالق»، وحُدث عن أبي روق، قال: «كل شيء في القرآن جعل، فهو خلق». إذاً، ما قول أبي روق في قوله: «فلمّا جهّزهم بجهازهم جعل السقاية فى رحل أخيه» (يوسف 70)؟ أو: «يجعلون أصابعهم في ءاذانهم من الصواعق حذر الموت» (البقرة 19)؟ أين الخلق في وضع الاصبع في الاذن؟ وما قوله في: «ولا تجعلوا الله عُرضة لأيمانكم» (البقرة 224)؟

في شرح «وإذ قُلنا للملائكة اسجدوا لآدم فسجدوا إلا إبليس أبى واستكبر وكان من الكافرين»، قال ابن عباس: «كان إبليس من حيّ من أحياء الملائكة يقال لهم الحن، خلقوا من نار السموم من بين الملائكة، فكان اسمه الحارث، وكان خازنا من خُزان الجنة. وخلقت الملائكة من نورٍ غير هذا الحي. وخلقت الجن الذي ذكروا في القرآن من مارج من نار، وهو لسان النار الذي يكون في طرفها إذا التهبت.» ثم قال في مكان آخر: «إن الله خلق خلقا، فقال: اسجدوا لآدم: فقالوا: لا نفعل. فبعث الله عليهم نارًا تحرقهم، ثم خلق خلقا آخر، فقال: إني خالق بشرا من طين، اسجدوا لآدم. فأبوا، فبعث الله عليهم نارا فأحرقتهم. قال: ثم خلق هؤلاء، فقال: اسجدوا لآدم. فقالوا: نعم. وكان إبليس من أولئك الذين أبوا أن يسجدوا لآدم.»

كنّا رددنا القول: لا حول ولا قوة إلا بالله من هكذا تفسير لكن الطبري سبقنا: «قال أبو جعفر (أي الطبري): هذه علل تنبئ عن ضعف معرفة أهلها. وذلك أنه غيرُ مستنكر أن يكون الله جل ثناؤه خلق أصناف ملائكته من أصنافٍ من خلقه شتّى. فخلق بعضا من نور، وبعضا من نار، وبعضا مما شاء من غير ذلك. وليس في ترك الله جل ثناؤه الخبر عما خلق منه ملائكته، وإخباره عما خلق منه إبليس – ما يوجب أن يكون إبليس خارجا عن معناهم» (ج1، ص 325).

ربما كان ما تقدم سبب قول الطبري: «كل ما قلنا في هذا الكتاب «حدثكم» فقد حدثونا به» (ج1، ص 20)، وربما سبب قوله أيضاً: «إن ثالث أوجه التفسير ما كان علمه عند أهل اللسان الذي نزل به القرآن» (ج1، ص 63). ويبدو أن هذا الرأي يخالف الرأي الأسبق، فها هو الطبري ينقل عن «أهل اللسان الذي نزل به القرآن»، لكنه قال قبل ذلك «هذه علل تنبئ عن ضعف معرفة أهلها.»

ثم قال الطبري: «وإبليس إفعيل، من الإبلاس، وهو الإياس من الخير والندمُ والحزن». هذا تكرار لما قاله ابن عباس: «إبليس، أبلسه الله من الخير كله، وجعله شيطانا رجيما عقوبة لمعصيته»، وقال آخرون: «كان اسم إبليس الحارث، وإنما سمي إبليس حين أبلس متحيرا.»

وما هذا لهذا فـ«إبليس» من مبنى الثنائي المتوالف: أب، لس. و«لس»، أصل لست وليس، بمعنى «لا». فإبليس من «لا أبا له» لأن الله، كما يُزعم في الاسرائيليات، غضب عليه وأبعده.

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