أديان التاريخ وتاريخ الأديان (2)

169
838
تفصيل من قانون امورأبي - متحف اللوفر - باريس

3:0:1  كشفت أعمال التنقيب في أور القريبة من مدينة الناصرية جنوب العراق وجود طبقات تاريخها نحو 6500ق.م فهي أقدم بكثير من تاريخها المعروف كمدينة من نحو 3800ق.م. إلى الشمال الغربي من أور، على نهر الفرات، نمت مدينة أخرى هي أُورُك (آكادي Uruk، سومري UNUG.KI) نحو سنة 4000ق.م تحوّلت هي الأخرى نحو 2900ق.م إلى ما يعتبره بعض المؤرخين أكبر مدينة في العالم القديم، قُدّر عدد سكانها بين 50-80 ألف مواطن. وبوجود هاتين المدينتين، وغيرهما عشر تقريباً، صارت مدن جنوب العراق من أهم مستوردي اللبان والمر والنحاس والأحجار الكريمة والصخور البازلتيّة الصالحة لنحت التماثيل من عُمان، وربما مكّة ومصر، فيما شملت الصادرات في الاتجاه المعاكس بعض المحاصيل الزراعيّة والأواني الفخارية وألواح الكتابة التي تُعتبر من بين أقدم المُكتشف في العالم.

وكان للتجارة طرقها البرية الكثيرة في اتجاهي الشرق إلى پروماش[1] ومن بعدها وادي نهر الأندوس في السند، التي كان اسماً عاماً في الآكادية يعني شمال الهند أيضاً، ثم بعد ذلك، وفي عصر لاحق، إلى الصين. وكان اتجاه الغرب على طول وادي الفرات، أو عبر تدمر، إلى إبلة وأُغريت ومدن كنعان على الساحلين الشامي والفلسطيني. وكانت قوافل الجمال تنقل منتوجات عُمان من وبار (إرم) وغيرها إلى جنوب العراق، وربما إلى مچة (مكة)، ومن مكة إلى الشام ومصر.

ومع استمرار نمو التجارة ازدادت الحاجة إلى النقل البحري بوصفه أسهل وسائط النقل وأقلها تكلفة مقارنة بالنقل البري. وكانت الأنهار العظمى في بلاد الأديان، النيل والفرات ودجلة، محيط نمو الملاحة التجارية في الألف الثالثةق.م واكبها، أو سبقها، تطوير مراكب قادرة على الابحار في مياه الخليج، ثم في أعالي البحار، إلى جنوب باكستان وغرب الهند في مرحلة تاريخية لاحقة. وبرزت صُر (صور) عُمان أهم الأحواض الجافة في العالم القديم، فيما استُخدم ميناء سمهرم لشحن البضائع إلى مصر واستقبال السفن المصرية التي كانت تحمل مصنوعات مصر الكثيرة من القماش والزجاج والفخاريات، وغيرها.

ومع استمرار تحسّن صناعة السفن اتسعت شبكة الخطوط الملاحية فشملت جنوب جزيرة العرب والبحر الأحمر، وكان بعض البضائع يُنقل براً بعد ذلك من خليج العقبة في طريق شرقي إلى جنوب العراق، وطريق شمالي غربي إلى غزة. وإلى الاسكندرية، ومنها إلى مدن البحر الأبيض المتوسط، كانت البضائع تُنقل  وبعدها إلى الأسواق القديمة والجديدة، ثم تعود السفن في الاتجاه المعاكس بالبضائع. وكان الخط التجاري الآخر يبدأ من بلاد الرافدين وما وراءها، ثم يعبر الصحراء التدمرية إلى أوغريت، في شمال غربي سورية، وإلى صور على الساحل الشامي، الذي كان يُطل على ما يُعرف أيضاً بالبحر الكنعاني أو الفينيقي.

ومن صور عُمان أولاً، كما يبدو، أبحرت قوارب قوم السم الكبيرة المصنوعة من الخوص المجدول والألياف إلى سواحل البحرين القديمة والبحرين (دلمن/ديلمون) الجزيرة، ثم إلى جنوب العراق. ومن صور الجديدة على الساحل اللبناني في العصر الكنعاني، وأوغريت، بدأت السفن الكنعانية، التي كانت الأكبر في عصرها، نقل مصنوعات أكبر مراكز الانتاج في العالم القديم في كل من مصر وبلاد الرافدين، إلى الأسواق الجديدة المطلة على البحر الأبيض المتوسط.

وكانت العادة في تلك الفترة المبكّرة من التجارة الأوسطية الرسو في الموانىء الايطالية واليونانية المهمة بضعة أيام وبيع البضائع أو تبادلها، ثم الابحار ثانية إلى المرسى بعده. وعندما اتسع النشاط التجاري وجد الكنعانيون حاجة إلى بناء عدد من المراكز لخزن البضائع، أو استخدامها محطة للانتقال إلى المناجم الداخلية أو الغابات التي كان شجرها مناسباً لبناء السفن، كما في شبه جزيرة آيبريا. في عصور لاحقة صار بعض هذه المراكز من أشهر المدن المطلة على البحر الأبيض المتوسط، مثل قاديش، أقدم المدن في أوروبا، وجنوة ومارسيليا والجزائر وبيروت وغزة وغيرها عشرات.

إنَّ معظم المكوّنات الحضارية في التعاريف اليوم من تطوير مدن جنوب العراق. إنها الكتابة والقراءة والموسيقى والصناعات والشوارع والقصور والمعابد والأسواق وأنظمة الحكم القسرّية التي بدأت بالكهنة الذين استخدموا عطايا الناس لاعادة توزيع الفائض منها وزيادة نفوذهم في المجتمعات، واتخذوا من المعابد الكبيرة مقرات سياسية لممارسة سلطتهم التي كانت الأولى في بعض المراحل، والثانية في مراحل غيرها صعد فيها نجم الملوك وارتفعت قصورهم.

أُورُك من مدن الحضارات الكبرى التي لم تتضح أهميتها العظمى إلا بعدما بدأ لوفتوس[2] أعمال التنقيب في المرحلة الأولى التي استمرت بين عامي 1850 و1854، لكن أور قامت أولاً، كما كان يُعتقد آنذاك، فلها سبق ما بعده سبق، ومن بعض أنظمتها نسخ الكهنة والملوك في دول المدن بعدها ما ناسبهم لبناء مدنهم العظيمة. الآكاديون أخرجوا «أتراحسيس»، لكن ملحمة چلچامش كانت الملحمة المخلدة الأولى، وكان بطلها الملك الأسطوري الأول الذي لحقه عشرات أبطال الأساطير في آداب الشعوب الأخرى ومنهم اليونانيون القدماء. الفرق أن چلچامش ربما كان ملكاً حقيقياً، والبعض يعتقد أنه كان يمارس صلاحياته في أورُك سنة 2750 ق.م.

[1]  پروماش Parumaš اسم أطلقه الآكاديون على ما صار يُعرف لاحقاً ببلاد «فارس». اسم الخليج في كلامهم مرّات Marratu قسّموه إلى قسمين: الأول تانت (البحر) الكلدانيين tāntu ša Kaldi والثاني تانت سپليت (الأسفل) tāntu šaplītu فيما تعني لفظة پرسواي parsuāiu الخراف الفارسية. فارس أصل فرس، أي الجواد، استأنسه الخلق في وسط آسيا قبل نحو ستة آلاف سنة، واستُخدم في بلاد الرافدين قبل خمسة آلاف سنة على نطاق واسع. ويبدو أن فرس وفارس من النواة *پر المُرحّلة في العربية إلى *فر بمعاني الفرار والابتعاد. ويُلاحظ أن لفظات إشپَرد išpardu وإشپرد išperdu وإشپر išpar تعني نوعاً من اللجام الخاص بالفرس، فيما تعني پَرو parû بغل. وللبغل في الآكادية مرادفات ومتصلات منها كودن kūdunu؛ شا-كودني ša-kūdini: بغال (حرفيّا: صاحب البغال)؛ بيت كودني bēt kūdini: بيت أو اسطبل البغال. في لسان العرب: «الكَوْدَن والكَوْدَنِيُّ البرذون الهجين، وقيل هو البغل، ويقال للبرذَوْن الثَّقيل: كَوْدَن تشبيهاً بالبغل». نواة الاسم، كما يبدو، *كد، وهي مُرحلة، مثل *جد، من النواة اليمنية *چد والتأذيل في برذون حمله بعض جماعة الكلام إلى العربية المُهاجرة.

[2]  William Kennett Loftus

يتبع … أديان التاريخ وتاريخ الأديان (3)

169 COMMENTS

  1. It’s in point of fact a great and helpful piece of information. I’m satisfied that you just shared this helpful info with us.

    Please stay us up to date like this. Thanks for sharing.

  2. Hey there! Quick question that’s entirely off topic.
    Do you know how to make your site mobile friendly? My website looks weird when viewing from my iphone.

    I’m trying to find a theme or plugin that might be able to correct this problem.
    If you have any recommendations, please share. Thank you!

  3. Heya this is kinda of off topic but I was wondering if blogs use WYSIWYG editors or if you have
    to manually code with HTML. I’m starting a blog soon but
    have no coding skills so I wanted to get advice from someone with experience.
    Any help would be enormously appreciated!

  4. Good day! I know this is somewhat off topic but I was wondering which blog platform
    are you using for this website? I’m getting fed up of WordPress
    because I’ve had issues with hackers and I’m looking at alternatives for another platform.
    I would be awesome if you could point me in the direction of a good platform.

  5. After checking out a few of the articles on your site, I honestly appreciate your
    technique of writing a blog. I saved it to my bookmark webpage list and will be checking back in the
    near future. Take a look at my web site as well and tell
    me how you feel.

  6. I’m impressed, I have to admit. Seldom do I encounter a
    blog that’s equally educative and interesting, and let me tell you, you’ve hit the nail on the head.

    The problem is an issue that too few men and women are speaking
    intelligently about. I’m very happy I found this during my search for something relating to this.

  7. Hi! Quick question that’s totally off topic. Do you know how to make your site mobile friendly?
    My website looks weird when browsing from my iphone4. I’m trying to find
    a template or plugin that might be able to fix this problem.
    If you have any suggestions, please share. Cheers!

  8. Oh my goodness! Incredible article dude! Thanks, However I am
    going through difficulties with your RSS. I don’t know why
    I cannot subscribe to it. Is there anybody getting identical RSS issues?

    Anyone that knows the solution will you kindly respond?

    Thanx!!

  9. Wonderful blog! Do you have any hints for aspiring writers?
    I’m hoping to start my own website soon but I’m a little lost on everything.

    Would you propose starting with a free platform like WordPress
    or go for a paid option? There are so many options out there that I’m totally confused ..
    Any recommendations? Thank you!

  10. I blog often and I really appreciate your content.

    This great article has really peaked my interest.
    I will take a note of your website and keep checking for new details about once
    a week. I opted in for your Feed as well.

  11. I was suggested this blog by my cousin. I am not sure whether this post is
    written by him as no one else know such detailed about my difficulty.

    You’re amazing! Thanks!

  12. Hi would you mind stating which blog platform you’re
    using? I’m looking to start my own blog in the near future but I’m
    having a hard time choosing between BlogEngine/Wordpress/B2evolution and Drupal.
    The reason I ask is because your design seems different then most blogs and I’m looking for something completely unique.
    P.S Apologies for being off-topic but I had to ask!

  13. Hello! I just wanted to ask if you ever have any issues with hackers?
    My last blog (wordpress) was hacked and I ended up losing several weeks of hard work due to no back up.
    Do you have any solutions to protect against hackers?

  14. naturally like your website however you need to test the spelling on quite a few of your posts.
    Many of them are rife with spelling problems and I find it very bothersome to inform the reality nevertheless I’ll certainly come back again.

  15. Its like you learn my thoughts! You appear to understand
    a lot about this, like you wrote the book in it or something.
    I believe that you could do with some % to force the message house a little bit,
    but instead of that, that is fantastic blog. An excellent read.
    I will definitely be back.

  16. Hi there, I found your blog via Google while looking for a
    related topic, your web site got here up, it looks great. I have bookmarked it in my
    google bookmarks.
    Hello there, simply was alert to your blog through
    Google, and located that it’s really informative.
    I am gonna watch out for brussels. I’ll appreciate in case you proceed this in future.

    A lot of other people shall be benefited from your writing.
    Cheers!

  17. You really make it appear so easy with your presentation but I find this topic to be actually something which I think I might
    never understand. It kind of feels too complex and extremely vast
    for me. I’m taking a look ahead to your next publish, I will try
    to get the cling of it!

  18. Heya i’m for the first time here. I came across this board and I in finding It truly
    helpful & it helped me out much. I’m hoping to
    present one thing again and aid others like you
    aided me.

  19. Generally I don’t learn article on blogs, however I
    would like to say that this write-up very pressured me to take a look at
    and do it! Your writing taste has been amazed me. Thank you, quite nice post.

  20. I relish, cause I discovered just what I used to be looking for.
    You’ve ended my four day lengthy hunt! God Bless you man. Have a
    great day. Bye

  21. Link exchange is nothing else however it is only placing the other person’s web site link on your page at appropriate place and other person will also do same in support of you.

  22. I every time used to read article in news papers but now as I am a user
    of internet therefore from now I am using net for posts,
    thanks to web.

  23. Wow, wonderful weblog layout! How long have you been blogging for?
    you make blogging glance easy. The total look of your web site
    is great, let alone the content material!

  24. It is perfect time to make a few plans for the future and it is time to be happy.
    I have read this publish and if I could I wish to suggest you some interesting issues or advice.
    Perhaps you can write subsequent articles regarding this
    article. I wish to read more issues approximately it!

  25. Just want to say your article is as astounding. The clearness to
    your submit is just spectacular and that i can suppose you’re an expert
    on this subject. Well together with your permission let me to grab
    your RSS feed to stay up to date with impending post.
    Thanks a million and please keep up the rewarding work.

  26. Howdy! This is my first visit to your blog! We are a
    group of volunteers and starting a new project in a community in the same niche.
    Your blog provided us beneficial information to work on. You have done a extraordinary job!

  27. Hey there! I know this is kinda off topic however , I’d figured I’d ask.
    Would you be interested in trading links or maybe guest authoring a blog post or vice-versa?
    My site covers a lot of the same subjects as yours and I believe we could greatly benefit from each other.
    If you are interested feel free to shoot me an e-mail.

    I look forward to hearing from you! Wonderful blog
    by the way!

  28. Howdy, i read your blog from time to time and i own a similar
    one and i was just wondering if you get a lot of spam remarks?

    If so how do you prevent it, any plugin or anything you can recommend?
    I get so much lately it’s driving me insane so any support is very much
    appreciated.

  29. Hi there! I know this is kind of off topic but I
    was wondering if you knew where I could get a captcha
    plugin for my comment form? I’m using the same blog platform as yours and I’m having problems finding one?
    Thanks a lot!

  30. Hey There. I found your blog the use of msn. This is a very smartly written article.
    I’ll make sure to bookmark it and come back to learn extra
    of your helpful information. Thanks for the post. I’ll certainly return.

  31. Neat blog! Is your theme custom made or did you download it from somewhere?
    A design like yours with a few simple tweeks would really make my blog jump
    out. Please let me know where you got your design. Appreciate
    it

  32. What i don’t realize is actually how you’re no longer really a lot more smartly-liked than you
    might be now. You are so intelligent. You realize thus
    considerably in the case of this matter, produced me in my view
    consider it from numerous numerous angles. Its like men and women aren’t involved unless it’s something to do
    with Lady gaga! Your individual stuffs outstanding.
    All the time care for it up!

  33. Do you mind if I quote a few of your articles as long as I provide credit and sources back to your blog?

    My blog is in the very same niche as yours and my visitors would really
    benefit from a lot of the information you present here. Please let me know
    if this alright with you. Many thanks!

  34. You really make it seem so easy with your presentation but I find
    this topic to be actually something which I think I would never understand.

    It seems too complex and very broad for me. I’m looking forward for your next post, I will try to get the hang of it!

  35. Fantastic website you have here but I was curious if you knew of any message boards that cover the same topics discussed
    here? I’d really like to be a part of online community where I can get comments from other experienced people
    that share the same interest. If you have any recommendations, please let me know.
    Bless you!

  36. Thanks on your marvelous posting! I genuinely enjoyed reading it,
    you will be a great author.I will make sure to bookmark your blog
    and will eventually come back later in life. I want to encourage one to continue your great posts,
    have a nice afternoon!

  37. Hey there would you mind letting me know which hosting company you’re using?
    I’ve loaded your blog in 3 different web browsers and I must say this blog loads a lot faster then most.
    Can you recommend a good web hosting provider
    at a honest price? Thank you, I appreciate it!

  38. I absolutely love your blog.. Very nice colors & theme.
    Did you create this amazing site yourself? Please reply back as I’m
    trying to create my own personal blog and would like to learn where you got this from
    or what the theme is named. Appreciate it!

  39. Good day! This is my first comment here so I just wanted
    to give a quick shout out and say I truly enjoy reading
    your articles. Can you recommend any other blogs/websites/forums that
    go over the same subjects? Appreciate it!

  40. Definitely imagine that that you stated. Your favorite
    justification appeared to be at the internet the simplest factor to understand
    of. I say to you, I definitely get annoyed while other people think about issues
    that they plainly don’t recognize about. You controlled
    to hit the nail upon the top and also defined out the whole thing with no
    need side-effects , other people could take a signal.
    Will likely be back to get more. Thank you

  41. Greetings from Colorado! I’m bored to tears at work so I decided to
    check out your blog on my iphone during lunch break.
    I enjoy the knowledge you present here and can’t wait to take
    a look when I get home. I’m amazed at how fast your blog
    loaded on my phone .. I’m not even using WIFI, just 3G ..
    Anyways, wonderful blog!

  42. I really like your blog.. very nice colors & theme.
    Did you design this website yourself or did you hire someone to do it for
    you? Plz answer back as I’m looking to design my own blog and would like to
    know where u got this from. thanks a lot

  43. Write more, thats all I have to say. Literally, it
    seems as though you relied on the video to make your point.
    You obviously know what youre talking about, why throw away your intelligence
    on just posting videos to your site when you could be giving us something informative to read?

  44. Right here is the perfect site for anyone who would like to understand
    this topic. You know a whole lot its almost hard to argue with you
    (not that I really would want to…HaHa). You definitely put a brand new spin on a topic which has been written about for many years.
    Great stuff, just wonderful!

  45. I’m impressed, I must say. Rarely do I encounter a blog
    that’s both educative and entertaining, and without a doubt, you’ve hit the nail on the head.
    The problem is something which not enough men and women are
    speaking intelligently about. Now i’m very happy that I came across this during my hunt
    for something concerning this.

  46. We’re a group of volunteers and opening a new scheme in our community.

    Your site offered us with valuable info to work on. You’ve done a formidable job and our entire community will be
    grateful to you.

  47. Pretty element of content. I just stumbled upon your web site
    and in accession capital to say that I acquire actually enjoyed
    account your blog posts. Anyway I’ll be subscribing in your augment and even I achievement you get entry
    to persistently fast.

  48. I’m curious to find out what blog platform you’re working with?
    I’m having some minor security problems with my latest website and
    I would like to find something more safeguarded.
    Do you have any recommendations?

  49. Hey I know this is off topic but I was wondering
    if you knew of any widgets I could add to my blog that automatically tweet my newest twitter updates.
    I’ve been looking for a plug-in like this for quite
    some time and was hoping maybe you would have some experience with something like this.

    Please let me know if you run into anything.
    I truly enjoy reading your blog and I look forward to
    your new updates.

  50. Attractive section of content. I just stumbled upon your website and
    in accession capital to assert that I get in fact enjoyed account your
    blog posts. Any way I’ll be subscribing to your augment and even I achievement
    you access consistently quickly.

  51. Wonderful items from you, man. I have be mindful your stuff prior
    to and you’re simply extremely excellent. I really like what you have got right here, certainly like what you are stating and
    the way by which you say it. You’re making it enjoyable
    and you still care for to keep it smart. I can not wait to learn much more from
    you. That is actually a terrific site.

  52. We are a bunch of volunteers and opening a brand new scheme in our community.
    Your website provided us with useful information to work
    on. You’ve done an impressive activity and our whole group can be grateful to you.

  53. Simply wish to say your article is as astonishing.
    The clearness in your post is just cool and i could assume you’re an expert on this subject.
    Fine with your permission let me to grab your feed to keep up
    to date with forthcoming post. Thanks a million and please carry on the gratifying work.

  54. Wow that was unusual. I just wrote an incredibly long comment but after I clicked submit
    my comment didn’t appear. Grrrr… well I’m not writing all that
    over again. Regardless, just wanted to say great blog!

  55. Do you mind if I quote a couple of your posts as long as I provide credit and sources back
    to your blog? My blog site is in the very same niche as yours and my visitors would certainly benefit from some of the information you provide here.
    Please let me know if this ok with you. Cheers!

  56. Definitely believe that which you stated. Your favorite reason seemed to be on the web the simplest thing to be aware of.

    I say to you, I definitely get annoyed while
    people think about worries that they plainly don’t know about.
    You managed to hit the nail upon the top and defined out the whole thing without
    having side effect , people can take a signal. Will likely
    be back to get more. Thanks

  57. I like the valuable information you provide in your articles.
    I’ll bookmark your blog and check again here frequently.

    I am quite sure I will learn many new stuff
    right here! Good luck for the next!

  58. you’re actually a good webmaster. The site loading pace is
    amazing. It sort of feels that you’re doing any unique trick.
    Moreover, The contents are masterwork. you’ve performed a fantastic task on this topic!

  59. I truly wanted to write a brief note so as to say thanks to you for the stunning secrets you are sharing here. My extensive internet investigation has at the end of the day been paid with pleasant suggestions to share with my friends and family. I would repeat that we readers actually are unequivocally blessed to live in a very good network with many brilliant individuals with very helpful techniques. I feel somewhat grateful to have encountered your entire webpages and look forward to some more pleasurable minutes reading here. Thank you once more for everything.

  60. Magnificent goods from you, man. I have understand
    your stuff previous to and you’re just too magnificent.
    I really like what you have acquired here, really like what you’re saying and the
    way in which you say it. You make it entertaining and you still care
    for to keep it wise. I cant wait to read far more from you.
    This is actually a wonderful website.

  61. I really love your website.. Very nice colors & theme.
    Did you build this site yourself? Please reply back as
    I’m planning to create my own personal blog and
    would like to learn where you got this from or just what the theme is named.
    Thanks!

  62. Good day very nice web site!! Man .. Excellent ..
    Superb .. I’ll bookmark your blog and take the feeds additionally?

    I am glad to seek out numerous helpful info here in the post,
    we want work out more strategies in this regard, thanks
    for sharing. . . . . .

  63. Thank you, I have just been looking for info approximately this topic for a while and yours is the greatest I’ve found out till now.

    However, what about the bottom line? Are you positive in regards to the supply?

  64. I was suggested this website by my cousin. I’m not sure whether this post is
    written by him as nobody else know such detailed about my problem.
    You’re wonderful! Thanks!

  65. I’m really inspired with your writing abilities as smartly as with the layout to your blog.

    Is this a paid subject matter or did you modify it your
    self? Either way stay up the nice quality writing, it is rare to see a great blog like this one nowadays..

  66. “I would like to thnkx for the efforts you have put in writing this website. I’m hoping the same high-grade web site post from you in the upcoming as well. In fact your creative writing abilities has encouraged me to get my own site now. Actually the blogging is spreading its wings quickly. Your write up is a great example of it.”

  67. Link exchange is nothing else except it is only placing the other person’s website link on your page at proper place and
    other person will also do similar in favor of you.

  68. Write more, thats all I have to say. Literally, it seems
    as though you relied on the video to make your point.
    You clearly know what youre talking about, why throw away
    your intelligence on just posting videos to your site
    when you could be giving us something informative to read?

  69. Please let me know if you’re looking for a author for
    your weblog. You have some really great posts and I believe I
    would be a good asset. If you ever want to take some of the load
    off, I’d absolutely love to write some material for your blog in exchange
    for a link back to mine. Please shoot me an e-mail if interested.
    Many thanks!

  70. Hello there, I discovered your site via Google while looking for a similar topic, your site
    came up, it appears to be like good. I have bookmarked it in my google bookmarks.

    Hello there, simply become aware of your blog thru Google,
    and found that it’s truly informative. I’m going to
    be careful for brussels. I will appreciate in the event you proceed this in future.
    Lots of other folks shall be benefited from your writing.
    Cheers!

  71. That is really interesting, You are an overly skilled blogger.
    I have joined your rss feed and look ahead to in the hunt
    for more of your fantastic post. Additionally, I have shared your website in my social networks

LEAVE A REPLY

Please enter your comment!
Please enter your name here